Thursday, March 10, 2011



In our earlier letter we just assured a touch on the elementary basis  of the payment recovery or best known as “export proceed”.  Please read the following. If you understand, well and Okay; if you do not understand, do not worry. Things will be very clear when you deal with export recovery process, as you work as probationer
in an export house. Follow the information below:

A letter of Credit (LC) is an internationally recognized instrument issued by a bank on behalf of its client, the purchaser. The LC actually represents the bank's guarantee to pay the seller, provided the conditions specified on it are fulfilled. Of course, the purchaser pays its bank a fee to render this service.

The rationale behind the use of an LC is reliance by the seller on the credit worthiness of the bank, which is normally more reliable than that of the purchaser. It is also easier to verify by the seller's bank. Moreover, this vehicle can be structured to protect the purchaser because no payment obligation arises until the goods have been satisfactorily delivered as promised. The greatest degree of protection is afforded to the seller when the LC has been issued by the buyer's bank and confirmed by the seller's bank. LCs may be utilized for one-time transactions, or they can cover multi-shipments, depending upon what is agreed between the parties. 

Collection (Drafts) involve the use of a draft, drawn by the seller on the buyer, requiring the buyer to pay the face amount either on sight (sight draft) or on a specified date in the future (time draft). The draft is an unconditional order to make such payment in accordance with its terms, which specify the documents needed before title to the goods will be passed. Because title to the goods does not pass until the draft is paid or accepted, both the buyer and seller are protected. However, if the buyer defaults on payment of the draft, the seller may have to pursue collection through the courts (or possibly, by arbitration, if such had been agreed upon between the parties). The use of drafts involves a certain level of risk; but they are less expensive for the purchaser than letters of credit. 

When goods are sold subject to consignment, no money is received by the exporter until after the goods have been sold by the purchaser. Title to the goods remains with the exporter until such time as all the purchase conditions are satisfied. As a practical matter, consignment is very risky. There is generally no way to predict how long it might take to sell the goods; moreover, if they are never sold, the exporter would have to pay the costs of recovering them from the foreign consignee. 

An open account transaction means that the goods are manufactured and delivered before payment is required (for example, payment could be due 14, 30, or 60 days following shipment or delivery). In the United States, sales are likely to be made on an open-account basis if the manufacturer has been dealing with the buyer over a long period of time and has established a secure working relationship. In international business transactions, this method of payment cannot be used safely unless the buyer is credit worthy and the country of destination is politically and economically stable.

Types of letter of credit: LCs

Commercial Letter of Credit
Standby Letter of Credit

Courtesy:All Experts:Richard

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